The Slovak National museum – The Museum of The Culture Of Croatians in Slovakia offers expositions about the history and culture of croatian minority in Slovakia as well as history of Devínska Nová Ves.
|Address and contact: Istrijská 68 Bratislava – Devínska nová Ves Tel.: +421 2 204 93 101-02-03, +421 915 807 494 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org web: www.snm.sk . Opening hours: Mo: closed Tw-Fr: 11.00 – 17.00 Sa-Su: 12.00 – 17.00|
The state boundary in the Morava area, particularly between Devin and the Devin Lake had been changing in the 20th century several times, just like the countries where this area belonged. In the times of Austro-Hungarian Empire (Dual monarchy) up to the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic, the Morava had always formed a boundary between Austria and Hungaria – as parts of the Empire. In the area of Devinska Nova Ves it could be crossed through a bridge. Maria Theresa had this road bridge built in 1771.
After its destruction it was possible to cross the river by ferry and from 1848 also on a railway bridge. The road bridge ended up near a toll-house: a toll had to be paid (in kind) for the goods transported. It is a place where nowadays street Na mýte is. The house that had used this purpose was today’s townhall in Devinska Nova Ves.
The former Hungarian border stretched through Austrian area in some places. The Czechoslovak border (established by international agreements) near the Morava corresponded with the Hungarian border, but the space on the right bank of the Danube near Devin became after the First World War a part of Austrian state.
After the annexation of Austria to Germany, before the Second World War started, Czechoslovakia started building up protective border fortifications along the Morava – concrete bunkers which have been preserved up to present. In 1938, as many as 5832 such bunkers were built on the territory of Czechoslovakia. The price of one such bunker in those times was equal to 60 thousand Czechoslovak crowns. The Czechoslovak army however, never used them, because the war was waged in a different way, with moving tanks then.
During the Second World War, the border between Germany and the Slovak state ran through a southwestern slope of Devinska Kobyla (through parts called Skala, Sandberg ) and futher its northern slopes close to Karlova Ves and the Danube. Devin and Petržalka from 1938 belonged to Germany. After the end of the WW2, these occupied territories were given back to the reinstated Czechoslovak Republic.
After February 1948 the Czechoslovak-Austrian border became a dividing line of two politically and economically opposed configuration of the Western states and the World Socialist „Fellowship“, although Austria up to 1955 was under the „supervision“ of the Soviet Union.
The following period was called the Cold War, which marked the lives of people living in the frontier area. These villages were treated in a different way. Nobody could enter the zone except for the villagers and a few people with a special permit for the border zone. Devinska Nova Ves was a seat of Frontier Guard (Police).
Along the dividing line of the two political systems, in 1950, border barriers were built, as a part of the huge Iron Curtain. The area behind the barriers reaching to the frontier zone was pronounced forbidden area. The Iron Curtain was along the whole our state boundary with the western world. It was 2,2m high, even 3m at some points. It was renewed every 4-5 years, because the durability of the barbed wire was „settled“ for this period. The guards were on duty 24 hours a day. In particular areas, emergency unit had to intervene on a given signal. The guards of the Frontier police were supposed to shoot at people after warning.
Thousands of people died in the attempt to cross the border illegally, but a few hundreds managed to run away. The Iron Curtain fell in december 1989 and the Morava area was accessible to people again.
In the Museum of Iron Curtain you can see a „memory“ of the barbed wire (10m long) and an information board on one of the military bunkers in Devinska Nova Ves, installed in 2000.
The Memorial for the Irion Curtain Victims was unveiled in 2006 under the Devin Castle Rock at the confluence of the Danube and the Morava.